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Why does diarrhea come in waves


Causes, When to Contact a Doctor, and More

Sudden diarrhea isn’t always serious. Causes can include medications. Also learn about chronic diarrhea, which is often due to an underlying condition that requires treatment.

Most people are familiar with the loose, watery stools of diarrhea.

Sudden diarrhea is generally not a cause for concern. It can resolve on its own or with over-the-counter (OTC) medications.

But recurring bouts of diarrhea or chronic diarrhea can impact your life significantly. Frequent episodes may also be a sign that you have an underlying condition that needs treatment.

Continue reading as we explore some reasons for sudden diarrhea, conditions that can cause chronic diarrhea, and when it’s time to contact a doctor or other healthcare professional.

Sudden diarrhea usually resolves on its own within a few days, even if you never find the cause. The following are some possible causes of a sudden, or acute, case of diarrhea:

  • traveler’s diarrhea
  • viral gastroenteritis
  • medications

Traveler’s diarrhea

If while traveling you’ve ever been told not to drink the water, it’s for a good reason. You could be exposed to harmful drinking water or food in some countries.

The water or food may contain parasites such as:

  • Cryptosporidium
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Giardia

They may also contain bacteria such as:

  • Campylobacter
  • E. coli
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella

Traveler’s diarrhea generally lasts a few days. Contact a healthcare professional if it lasts longer.

Viral gastroenteritis

Viral gastroenteritis is what many people refer to as the “stomach flu.” Despite its name, it’s not influenza, and it affects the intestines, not the stomach.

Some viruses that cause viral gastroenteritis include:

  • adenovirus
  • astrovirus
  • cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • norovirus
  • rotavirus
  • viral hepatitis

Viral gastroenteritis can also result in:

  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting
  • fever

Medications

Some medications can cause diarrhea.

For example, while antibiotics are destroying bad bacteria, they’re also destroying good bacteria. This creates an imbalance that can cause diarrhea.

Other medications that can cause diarrhea include:

  • antacids that contain magnesium
  • certain drugs used to treat cancer
  • laxatives or stool softeners when overused

Diarrhea that doesn’t clear up within 4 weeks is considered chronic.

There are many possible causes of chronic diarrhea, including:

  • infection
  • exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI)
  • celiac disease
  • irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

About 5% of the population has chronic diarrhea.

Infection

Some parasitic and bacterial infections don’t go away on their own and require treatment. Following an infection, you might have trouble digesting milk or soy products, leading to diarrhea.

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI)

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition in which your pancreas can’t make enough enzymes to break down food.

EPI makes it hard for your body to absorb nutrients. It can also lead to chronic digestive problems such as frequent diarrhea and:

  • gas
  • bloating
  • stomachache
  • oily, foul-smelling stools
  • unexplained weight loss
  • malnutrition

Celiac disease

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the way your body processes gluten. Your body attacks gluten proteins, resulting in damage to the small intestine.

Celiac disease causes symptoms such as:

  • stomach discomfort
  • bloating
  • unintentional weight loss
  • rashes

In some cases, celiac disease may cause constipation instead of chronic diarrhea.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, which means the GI tract doesn’t work as it should. Other names for IBS include:

  • spastic colon
  • spastic bowel
  • IBS colitis

There are several types of IBS. The type that primarily causes diarrhea is called IBS-D.

If you have IBS-D, you may have regular bowel movements on some days and abnormal movements on others. On abnormal days, your bowel movements are more loose or watery than hard or lumpy.

IBS-mixed (IBS-M) can cause chronic diarrhea as well. This type is also known as IBS-alternating (IBS-A) because it causes both diarrhea and constipation over time.

Other symptoms of IBS may include:

  • abdominal discomfort
  • bloating
  • mucus in the stool

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term for conditions such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, both of which cause chronic inflammation of the GI tract.

Crohn’s disease can involve any part of the digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis is limited to the colon. Symptoms are similar, though.

In addition to chronic diarrhea, you might also have:

  • nocturnal diarrhea, or diarrhea at night
  • bloody stools
  • abdominal pain
  • weight loss
  • endocrine disorders

Microscopic colitis is a less common type of IBD. It involves inflammation of the colon.

Chronic diarrhea is the primary symptom, but it can also cause:

  • nocturnal diarrhea
  • abdominal pain
  • fatigue

People diagnosed with microscopic colitis tend to be older than people diagnosed with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.

Other possible causes

Chronic diarrhea can also be a symptom of endocrine disorders such as:

  • Addison’s disease, in which your body doesn’t make enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone
  • carcinoid tumors
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which causes tumors in the pancreas or small intestine

Chronic diarrhea can sometimes be the result of abdominal surgery involving your:

  • appendix
  • gallbladder
  • intestines
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • spleen
  • stomach

Sensitivities or allergies to products such as soy, eggs, or seafood can cause diarrhea. Other food triggers include:

  • Lactose: People who are lactose intolerant may have diarrhea after consuming milk and other dairy products.
  • Fructose and high fructose corn syrup: If you’re fructose intolerant, you might have diarrhea after consuming foods or soft drinks that contain fruits or honey.
  • Artificial sweeteners: The sugar alcohols typically added to sugar-free products can trigger diarrhea. These include sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol.
  • Gluten: If you have celiac disease or another gluten-related disorder, your body is sensitive to the protein gluten. Gluten is found in foods that contain certain grains, such as wheat or rye.

Too much alcohol or caffeinated beverages such as coffee can also cause diarrhea.

Experiencing diarrhea from time to time isn’t pleasant, but it’s not cause for concern either.

If you’re experiencing frequent or severe diarrhea, it’s important to replenish fluids to avoid dehydration.

But if your symptoms are serious enough that you have to stay home or take time off from work, it may be time to contact a doctor or other healthcare professional. If your diarrhea is the result of an underlying condition, the sooner you’re able to get a diagnosis and start on treatment, the better.

Seek medical attention if you have severe diarrhea accompanied by:

  • fever of 102°F (38.9°C) or higher
  • vomiting
  • abdominal or rectal pain
  • stools that contain blood or pus
  • weight loss
  • symptoms of dehydration, such as:
    • confusion
    • dark urine
    • dizziness
    • extreme thirst

If you frequently experience diarrhea or it’s become chronic, it’s important to get a diagnosis.

Be sure to tell a doctor or other healthcare professional about all of your symptoms, how frequently they occur, and how long they last. Also, be sure to talk about any known medical conditions or if you have a family history of GI disorders.

If no cause can be found upon initial examination, a doctor may refer you to a gastroenterologist for further diagnostic testing. GI disorders can be successfully treated and managed.

Causes, When to Contact a Doctor, and More

Sudden diarrhea isn’t always serious. Causes can include medications. Also learn about chronic diarrhea, which is often due to an underlying condition that requires treatment.

Most people are familiar with the loose, watery stools of diarrhea.

Sudden diarrhea is generally not a cause for concern. It can resolve on its own or with over-the-counter (OTC) medications.

But recurring bouts of diarrhea or chronic diarrhea can impact your life significantly. Frequent episodes may also be a sign that you have an underlying condition that needs treatment.

Continue reading as we explore some reasons for sudden diarrhea, conditions that can cause chronic diarrhea, and when it’s time to contact a doctor or other healthcare professional.

Sudden diarrhea usually resolves on its own within a few days, even if you never find the cause. The following are some possible causes of a sudden, or acute, case of diarrhea:

  • traveler’s diarrhea
  • viral gastroenteritis
  • medications

Traveler’s diarrhea

If while traveling you’ve ever been told not to drink the water, it’s for a good reason. You could be exposed to harmful drinking water or food in some countries.

The water or food may contain parasites such as:

  • Cryptosporidium
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Giardia

They may also contain bacteria such as:

  • Campylobacter
  • E. coli
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella

Traveler’s diarrhea generally lasts a few days. Contact a healthcare professional if it lasts longer.

Viral gastroenteritis

Viral gastroenteritis is what many people refer to as the “stomach flu.” Despite its name, it’s not influenza, and it affects the intestines, not the stomach.

Some viruses that cause viral gastroenteritis include:

  • adenovirus
  • astrovirus
  • cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • norovirus
  • rotavirus
  • viral hepatitis

Viral gastroenteritis can also result in:

  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting
  • fever

Medications

Some medications can cause diarrhea.

For example, while antibiotics are destroying bad bacteria, they’re also destroying good bacteria. This creates an imbalance that can cause diarrhea.

Other medications that can cause diarrhea include:

  • antacids that contain magnesium
  • certain drugs used to treat cancer
  • laxatives or stool softeners when overused

Diarrhea that doesn’t clear up within 4 weeks is considered chronic.

There are many possible causes of chronic diarrhea, including:

  • infection
  • exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI)
  • celiac disease
  • irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

About 5% of the population has chronic diarrhea.

Infection

Some parasitic and bacterial infections don’t go away on their own and require treatment. Following an infection, you might have trouble digesting milk or soy products, leading to diarrhea.

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI)

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition in which your pancreas can’t make enough enzymes to break down food.

EPI makes it hard for your body to absorb nutrients. It can also lead to chronic digestive problems such as frequent diarrhea and:

  • gas
  • bloating
  • stomachache
  • oily, foul-smelling stools
  • unexplained weight loss
  • malnutrition

Celiac disease

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the way your body processes gluten. Your body attacks gluten proteins, resulting in damage to the small intestine.

Celiac disease causes symptoms such as:

  • stomach discomfort
  • bloating
  • unintentional weight loss
  • rashes

In some cases, celiac disease may cause constipation instead of chronic diarrhea.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, which means the GI tract doesn’t work as it should. Other names for IBS include:

  • spastic colon
  • spastic bowel
  • IBS colitis

There are several types of IBS. The type that primarily causes diarrhea is called IBS-D.

If you have IBS-D, you may have regular bowel movements on some days and abnormal movements on others. On abnormal days, your bowel movements are more loose or watery than hard or lumpy.

IBS-mixed (IBS-M) can cause chronic diarrhea as well. This type is also known as IBS-alternating (IBS-A) because it causes both diarrhea and constipation over time.

Other symptoms of IBS may include:

  • abdominal discomfort
  • bloating
  • mucus in the stool

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term for conditions such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, both of which cause chronic inflammation of the GI tract.

Crohn’s disease can involve any part of the digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis is limited to the colon. Symptoms are similar, though.

In addition to chronic diarrhea, you might also have:

  • nocturnal diarrhea, or diarrhea at night
  • bloody stools
  • abdominal pain
  • weight loss
  • endocrine disorders

Microscopic colitis is a less common type of IBD. It involves inflammation of the colon.

Chronic diarrhea is the primary symptom, but it can also cause:

  • nocturnal diarrhea
  • abdominal pain
  • fatigue

People diagnosed with microscopic colitis tend to be older than people diagnosed with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.

Other possible causes

Chronic diarrhea can also be a symptom of endocrine disorders such as:

  • Addison’s disease, in which your body doesn’t make enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone
  • carcinoid tumors
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which causes tumors in the pancreas or small intestine

Chronic diarrhea can sometimes be the result of abdominal surgery involving your:

  • appendix
  • gallbladder
  • intestines
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • spleen
  • stomach

Sensitivities or allergies to products such as soy, eggs, or seafood can cause diarrhea. Other food triggers include:

  • Lactose: People who are lactose intolerant may have diarrhea after consuming milk and other dairy products.
  • Fructose and high fructose corn syrup: If you’re fructose intolerant, you might have diarrhea after consuming foods or soft drinks that contain fruits or honey.
  • Artificial sweeteners: The sugar alcohols typically added to sugar-free products can trigger diarrhea. These include sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol.
  • Gluten: If you have celiac disease or another gluten-related disorder, your body is sensitive to the protein gluten. Gluten is found in foods that contain certain grains, such as wheat or rye.

Too much alcohol or caffeinated beverages such as coffee can also cause diarrhea.

Experiencing diarrhea from time to time isn’t pleasant, but it’s not cause for concern either.

If you’re experiencing frequent or severe diarrhea, it’s important to replenish fluids to avoid dehydration.

But if your symptoms are serious enough that you have to stay home or take time off from work, it may be time to contact a doctor or other healthcare professional. If your diarrhea is the result of an underlying condition, the sooner you’re able to get a diagnosis and start on treatment, the better.

Seek medical attention if you have severe diarrhea accompanied by:

  • fever of 102°F (38.9°C) or higher
  • vomiting
  • abdominal or rectal pain
  • stools that contain blood or pus
  • weight loss
  • symptoms of dehydration, such as:
    • confusion
    • dark urine
    • dizziness
    • extreme thirst

If you frequently experience diarrhea or it’s become chronic, it’s important to get a diagnosis.

Be sure to tell a doctor or other healthcare professional about all of your symptoms, how frequently they occur, and how long they last. Also, be sure to talk about any known medical conditions or if you have a family history of GI disorders.

If no cause can be found upon initial examination, a doctor may refer you to a gastroenterologist for further diagnostic testing. GI disorders can be successfully treated and managed.

Acute intestinal infection - Soviet Psychoneurological Dispensary

Tuesday, eighteen July 2017

Acute intestinal infection - disease caused by microorganisms that have entered the human intestine. The causative agents of the disease are bacteria, viruses, protozoa or fungi. The source of infection is a sick person, an animal, everyday items and the environment, food, water.

Acute intestinal infections (AII) are characterized by indigestion, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and intoxication of the body. The disease is severe in children: the body is quickly dehydrated and has a weak immune system.

Intestinal infections are dangerous during pregnancy: dehydration and intoxication of a woman's body lead to miscarriage or provoke oxygen starvation of the fetus.

What are acute intestinal infections?

Intestinal infections are characterized by rapid spread. Transmission - oral-fecal, alimentary and airborne. The infection is transmitted from person to person through unwashed hands, household items, poorly washed fruits and vegetables, and by water.

Pathogenic microorganisms are carried by insects (flies, cockroaches), sick farm animals, birds or rodents. Pathogenic microorganisms choose the human intestine as their habitat. Intestinal infectious diseases are similar in clinical manifestations; etiology and epidemiology are different.

Etiology of acute intestinal infections

Types of OKI:

1. Bacterial – pathogens – pathogenic bacteria (dysentery bacillus, salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and others) and their toxins. Bacterial infections include: dysentery, salmonellosis, escherichiosis, infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, typhoid fever, cholera, botulism and others.

2. Viral - pathogens: reovirus, rotovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, coronovirus and others.

3. Fungal - causative agents - fungi of the Candida species.

4. Protozoan - caused by parasitic protozoa (amoebae, giardia, parasitic ciliates Balantidium coli).

Epidemiology OII

The causes of the occurrence and spread of acute intestinal infections are that microorganisms - pathogens of diseases are quickly transmitted from a sick person or a carrier of the infection.

Pathogenic microorganisms are resistant to environmental conditions, retain their harmful qualities in the cold for a long time, and remain on objects with which the infected person has come into contact.

Pathogens leave the body infected with an intestinal infection, along with feces and vomit, and are transferred to surrounding household items, water, food with the help of hands, insects, and enter water bodies with sewage. The transmission of the pathogen is “in a chain”, which leads to the emergence of an epidemic.

Clinical picture of AII

Intestinal infections are common diseases.

The clinic of all acute intestinal diseases is characterized by common manifestations:

1. Infectious-toxic syndrome . A sharp increase in body temperature to subfebrile or high or fever. Manifestations of intoxication of the body - aches, muscle pain, nausea.

2. Intestinal syndrome. Abdominal pain, severe diarrhea and vomiting. Depending on the type of pathogen that has entered the body, the manifestations of the intestinal syndrome differ in the localization of pain, consistency, stool color and frequency, the presence of mucus or blood in the feces, and the nature of vomiting.

3. Dehydration of the body . Rapid dehydration and rapid weight loss. Acute lack of moisture in the tissues of the body (dry skin and mucous membranes, severe thirst).

The first symptoms of the disease appear 6-48 hours after infection.

Intestinal influenza is the most common intestinal infection. Intestinal flu affects children from six months to two years. The nature of the disease is viral, the causative agent - rotavirus - a pathogenic microorganism that has a three-layer dense shell and the shape of a "wheel".

Ways and mechanism of infection with rotavirus

Rotavirus intestinal infection is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Trillions of bacteria leave with the feces of an infected person. While a hundred units are enough to infect others. Rotaviruses are tenacious, resistant to low temperatures and remain on those household items with which the patient or carrier of the virus has come into contact.

From these objects, they are transferred through poorly washed hands into the oral cavity of a healthy person and settle on the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines. Through close contact, rotavirus is transmitted through the saliva of an infected person.

Rotavirus enters through unboiled water and food, poorly washed or not sufficiently heat treated.

In case of mass infection, an epidemic of rotavirus occurs. The outbreak occurs in late autumn and winter. The centers of infection are in crowded places - kindergartens, schools, nursing homes, hostels.

Sources of infection

Sources of infection - sick adults and children who have already shown symptoms of the disease, or virus carriers - people who have the virus in their bodies, but there are no signs of the disease.

Rotavirus with sewage enters the water supply network, water bodies, where bathing leads to infection.

Incubation period and disease duration

The incubation period lasts up to six days. The duration of illness with intestinal rotavirus infection is 2 weeks. The disease goes through two phases: an acute phase and a convalescent phase. The first phase lasts 7 days: the body fights the infection, the symptoms are severe. During the second phase, the body develops immunity, and a gradual recovery begins.

Symptoms

Clinical manifestations of intestinal flu are similar to SARS in the first days of the disease:

  • Temperature increase up to 39°C
  • headache;
  • sore throat and redness;
  • runny nose, cough, headache;
  • pain in the abdomen;
  • diarrhea;
  • bouts of vomiting;
  • lack of appetite;
  • lethargy and weakness.

The absence of a high temperature distinguishes food poisoning from intestinal infections caused by pathogenic bacteria or viruses. A dangerous manifestation in the acute phase of the disease is dehydration. The patient must be given plenty of fluids to drink.

Features of the course of the disease in adults and children

Rotaviruses are invulnerable to the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal enzymes by a three-layer shell. During the course of the disease, the virus infects enterocytes - cells of the intestinal epithelium - and leads to their death, modifying the epithelium. There are severe diarrhea and powerful dehydration of the body, such is the pathogenesis of the disease.

Rotavirus in children

Intestinal infections are dangerous for children, which is associated with the characteristics of the child's body and immunity. AII is a common disease among babies from six months to two years.

Enterovirus and rotavirus infections often occur in childhood and are similar to each other. At first, parents confuse them with acute respiratory infections, as there is a jump in temperature, cough, watery eyes, runny nose. Then comes vomiting and diarrhea. Both with enterovirus and rotavirus infections, the symptoms are high fever, diarrhea and vomiting, abdominal pain, lack of appetite, and weakness.

Unlike rotavirus, enterovirus affects, in addition to the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, heart and nervous system of the child and affects vision.

Dehydration and intoxication are manifestations of the disease. Dehydration of the body occurs so quickly that the child does not produce urine and tears. Pain disturbs the baby's sleep pattern.

Treatment consists of drinking salted water or intravenous fluids.

Breastfed babies are less prone to gastrointestinal infections due to the qualities of mother's milk.

Rotavirus in adults

Features of the manifestation of intestinal influenza in adults - that the course of the disease occurs with less pronounced symptoms. This is due to the protection of the adult organism - the acidic environment of the stomach and the content of immunoglobulin A in the secret produced by intestinal enterocytes.

The manifestation of the disease in an adult is an intestinal disorder. A person is a carrier of infections, not suspecting that an intestinal disease is hiding behind mild symptoms.

Rotavirus in pregnancy

Rotavirus infection during pregnancy does not pose a risk to the fetus. Dehydration of a woman's body provokes oxygen starvation of the fetus. Therefore, it is important at the first signs of intestinal flu to prevent dehydration and to observe bed rest. Preventive measures and hygiene will help reduce the risk of intestinal infection.

Peculiarities of care for patients with AII

During the onset of symptoms of acute intestinal infections, it is necessary to provide first aid and then be sure to consult a doctor who will prescribe an individual course of treatment.

First aid

An infected person should be given first aid:

  • Keep infected person away from others;
  • The patient should be given a drink in small quantities, but often; moisten lips with a napkin soaked in water;
  • Lay on one side, if there is vomiting, substitute a container;
  • Unfasten, remove tight clothing;
  • Ventilate the room;
  • Apply ice wrapped in cloth or wet cold bandage to head;
  • Do not give food, do cleansing enemas;
  • It is forbidden to apply a heating pad, give medicines (painkillers, astringents, antipyretics).

All children, regardless of age, are subject to hospitalization, adults with moderate and severe forms of the infection. Without fail, for any intestinal infection, gastric lavage is performed. It is prescribed regardless of how much time has passed since the onset of the disease, since the pathogen can remain viable on the walls of the gastrointestinal tract for a long time.

Complications

Acute intestinal infections can form the following complications:

If left untreated, serious consequences are possible!

  • Dehydration (dehydration) ;
  • Infectious-toxic shock;
  • Pneumonia;
  • Acute renal failure;
  • Fatal outcome.

Prophylaxis

Preventive measures include:

  • Drinking boiled water;
  • Washing vegetables, fruits;
  • Personal hygiene;
  • Short-term storage of perishable products;
  • Cooking food before consumption;
  • House cleaning;
  • Do not swim in polluted waters

Water diarrhea - causes and treatment of watery diarrhea

Co-author, editor and medical expert - Klimovich Elina Valerievna.

Views: 1 210 464

Last update date: 09/27/2022

Average reading time: 5 minutes

Content:

How water is absorbed in the intoneriorator
9002 secretory diarrhea

What if the diarrhea is watery?

Diarrhea can have various causes, but is always accompanied by changes in intestinal absorption of water and electrolytes. And with secretory diarrhea, this process is not only disrupted, but is replaced by active transport of electrolytes into the intestinal lumen and, after them, water. The osmolar pressure of the intestinal contents becomes lower than the osmolar pressure of the blood plasma. This supports the diffusion of water into the intestinal lumen and is fraught with rapid dehydration due to the development of diarrhea with water. At the same time, the stool is liquid, plentiful (more than 1 liter), defecation is painless, and fasting practically does not change the nature and quantity of bowel movements. If secretory diarrhea is accompanied by malabsorption of bile acids or a decrease in the contractile function of the gallbladder, the watery stool becomes bright yellow or greenish in color. This is called hologenic diarrhea.

How water is absorbed in the intestines

Every day a person consumes about 2 liters of water. It is found not only in drinks, but also in all the foods eaten. In addition, fluid enters the lumen of the digestive tract as part of the digestive secrets. And about 7 liters are released per day! This includes 1.5 liters of saliva and pancreatic juice, 2.5 liters of gastric juice, half a liter of bile and a liter of intestinal secretions. Total enters the intestinal lumen daily up to 9liters of water, and only 100-200 ml (that is, about 2%) of this volume is excreted with feces. The walls of the small intestine absorb up to 80% of all liquid, and 90% of the remaining amount is absorbed in the large intestine.

In this case, water is absorbed secondarily and passively, following the active transport of electrolytes through the walls of the digestive tract. Sodium ions play the most important role in this process, but potassium and chlorine also take an active part. All these electrolytes enter the intestine with food and digestive juices and are actively absorbed. At the same time, the final absorption of water and absorption up to 90% sodium occurs in the large intestine. As a result, rather dense fecal masses are normally formed here.

Causes of secretory diarrhea

Exogenous

  • Drugs. Some medications cause diarrhea with water. They increase the osmotic pressure inside the intestine or change the transport of ions in the intestinal wall. Watery diarrhea often occurs when taking laxatives, diuretics, drugs for the treatment of bronchial asthma and thyroid diseases. Cholinergic drugs have a great influence. These include certain myasthenic, cardiotonic, and antihypertensive agents, as well as antidepressants and agents for the treatment of dementia.
  • Toxins. Secretory diarrhea can occur against the background of poisoning with fungi, arsenic, organophosphorus compounds, insecticides, alcohol and a number of other drugs.
  • Viral and bacterial infections . A number of infections cause watery diarrhea due to exposure to the pathogens themselves and their toxins. These are cholera, yersiniosis, some strains of Escherichia coli and staphylococci that produce enterotoxins.

Endogenous

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