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What are the long term effects of ms

What Are the Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Multiple Sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic condition that affects the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. It can cause diverse symptoms.

In many cases, MS is progressive. That means it generally becomes more severe over time. However, medications are available to delay the progression of MS.

Understanding the short- and long-term effects of MS is the first step toward learning to manage them. Your doctor can help you learn about ways to reduce the effect of MS on your day-to-day life.

If you have MS, overactive immune cells in your body damage the myelin sheath that protects nerve fibers in your central nervous system. This causes damaged areas known as lesions to form.

When lesions form on your brain or spinal cord, they disrupt the movement of nerve signals in your body. This can cause a variety of symptoms.

For example, common symptoms include:

  • fatigue
  • changes to your
  • tingling and
    numbness in your face, trunk, or limbs
  • weakness and pain
    in your muscles
  • loss of balance
    and coordination
  • problems with your memory, concentration, or
    other cognitive functions

MS can also cause less commonly known symptoms, such as tremors or paralysis. Not everyone experiences these symptoms.

The symptoms of MS vary from one person to another. They can also change over time in the same person.

For example, some people develop symptoms that get partially or fully better during periods of remission. Those symptoms may come back later during attacks or relapses. People can also experience symptoms that persist over time.

As time passes, new or more severe symptoms may develop. That’s why it’s important for you to manage the condition carefully with treatment. Following a treatment plan may help treat current symptoms and reduce the likelihood of new symptoms.

MS is classified into three main types, based on how the condition progresses. RRMS is the most common type of MS. It accounts for approximately 85 percent of new diagnoses, reports the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS).

People with RRMS experience acute attacks of symptoms, known as relapses. These attacks are followed by periods of remission.

During relapses, you develop new symptoms, or your existing symptoms get worse. During remission, some or all of your symptoms get better.

The other types of MS include secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). Most people with RRMS eventually develop SPMS. Only about 15 percent of people with MS have PPMS.

According to the NMSS, most people with MS do not become severely disabled.

However, symptoms and complications of MS can potentially affect your ability to complete daily tasks. This might interfere with your work, home life, or relationships.

In general, the risk of disability increases as time passes.

According to NMSS, about two-thirds of people with MS maintain their ability to walk. Some may need to use a cane or other assistive device.

There are two main groups of medication used to treat MS: disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and symptomatic drugs.

DMTs are designed to slow the progression of MS. They may help to:

  • limit the number and size of
    lesions that form
  • reduce the frequency and severity of attacks or relapses
  • prevent or delay disability

Most DMTs have been developed to treat RRMS. However, some are available to treat SPMS or PPMS.

Symptomatic drugs are used to treat symptoms of MS. Depending on your specific symptoms, your doctor might prescribe one or more symptomatic drugs to manage them.

Your doctor might also prescribe other treatments, such as physical or occupational therapy. In some cases, you might benefit from using an assistive device, such as a cane.

To reduce your risk of complications and disability from MS, early diagnosis and treatment are both important.

Your doctor will ask you to schedule regular checkups to monitor and manage the condition over time. Following your recommended treatment plan may help improve your long-term outlook with MS.

Leading an overall healthy lifestyle might also help you maintain good quality of life with the condition. For example, exercising, eating a healthy diet, and finding ways to relax may make a difference.

MS can cause a range of different symptoms that often change as the condition progresses. To help delay the progression of MS, many medications are available. Your doctor may also suggest treatments that are intended to treat specific symptoms.

Talk to your doctor to learn more about the potential short- and long-term effects of MS, as well as the strategies you can use to prevent or manage those effects.

What Is MS? Overview, Risk Factors & Outlook

Written by WebMD Editorial Contributors

In this Article

  • MS Symptoms
  • At What Age Does MS Usually Start?
  • Types of MS
  • What Are the First Signs of MS?
  • What Causes MS?
  • Getting an MS Diagnosis
  • MS Treatment
  • Complications of MS
  • Living With MS
  • MS Prognosis

Multiple sclerosis, or MS, happens when your immune system attacks myelin, the sheath around your nerve cells. Without this outer shell, your nerves become damaged and cause communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body.  

MS is a chronic, or long-lasting, disease that can affect your brain, spinal cord, and the optic nerves in your eyes. It can cause problems with vision, balance, muscle control, and other basic body functions.

The effects are often different for everyone who has the disease. Some people have mild symptoms and don’t need treatment. Others will have trouble getting around and doing daily tasks.

MS Symptoms

The damage means your brain can’t send signals through your body correctly. Your nerves also don’t work as they should to help you move and feel. As a result, you may have symptoms like:

  • Trouble walking
  • Feeling tired
  • Muscle weakness or spasms
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Sexual problems
  • Poor bladder or bowel control
  • Pain
  • Depression
  • Problems focusing or remembering

At What Age Does MS Usually Start?

The first symptoms often start between ages 20 and 40. Most people with MS have attacks, also called relapses, when the condition gets noticeably worse. They’re usually followed by times of recovery when symptoms improve. For other people, the disease continues to get worse over time.

In recent years, scientists have found many new treatments that can often help prevent relapses and slow the disease’s effects.

Types of MS

There are three main types of MS:

Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

It’s the most common type of MS. About 85% of people with MS get this diagnosis. With RRMS, you tend to get temporary flare-ups. These are called relapses. If you have RRMS, you’re very likely to get worsening symptoms during an attack. 

After the flare-up, you go through a phase of remission – it’s a period of time when you don’t have symptoms. However, your condition doesn’t get worse during remission. 

Primary-Progressive MS (PPMS)

If you have PPMS, your MS symptoms tend to slowly worsen from the time you’re diagnosed. But you don’t get specific periods of relapses or remission. About 10% of people with MS get diagnosed with PPMS.

Secondary-Progressive MS (SPMS)

With SPMS, your symptoms steadily get worse over time. You might develop this type after you develop early RRMS symptoms. Studies don’t clearly show whether medications can slow down your condition from getting worse.

What Are the First Signs of MS?

Symptoms may differ for each person. And as the condition progresses or gets worse, you might see new symptoms.The first signs of MS usually include vision changes. This is also known as optic neuritis. Issues may include:

  • Complete or partial loss of vision. This usually happens in one eye at a time.
  • Pain when you move your eyes
  • Blurry vision
  • Double vision

Other common early signs that you may likely have are:

  • Numbness and tingling
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of balance
  • Dizziness
  • Stiffness
  • Spasms
  • Tremors
  • Pain
  • Bladder problems
  • Bowel trouble
  • Troubling thinking
  • Memory issues

What Causes MS?

Doctors don’t know for sure what causes MS, but there are many things that seem to make the disease more likely. People with certain genes may have higher chances of getting it. Smoking also may raise the risk.

Some people may get MS after they’ve had a viral infection -- like the Epstein-Barr virus or the human herpesvirus 6 -- that makes their immune system stop working normally. The infection may trigger the disease or cause relapses. Scientists are studying the link between viruses and MS, but they don’t have a clear answer yet.

Some studies suggest that vitamin D, which you can get from sunlight, may strengthen your immune system and protect you from MS. Some people with higher chances of getting the disease who move to sunnier regions seem to lower their risk.

Getting an MS Diagnosis

It can be hard to diagnose MS since its symptoms can be the same as many other nerve disorders. If your doctor thinks you have it, they’ll want you to see a specialist who treats the brain and nervous system, called a neurologist. They’ll ask you about your medical history and check you for key signs of nerve damage in your brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.

There’s no single test that can prove you have MS. Your doctor will use a few different ones to check you. These may include:

  • Evoked potential tests, which record the electrical signals produced by your nervous system in response to stimuli.
  • Blood tests to rule out diseases that cause similar symptoms, like Lyme disease and HIV.
  • Checks of your balance, coordination, vision, and other functions to see how well your nerves are working.
  • A test that makes detailed pictures of the structures in your body, called an MRI.
  • Analysis of the liquid that cushions your brain and spinal cord, called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). People with MS usually have specific proteins in their CSF.
  • Tests (called evoked potentials) that measure the electrical activity in your brain.
  • OCT (optical coherence tomography) used to detect changes in the retina, which could warn of brain atrophy

MS Treatment

There is no cure for MS, but a number of treatments can improve how you feel and keep your body working well.

Your doctor can also prescribe drugs that may slow the course of the disease, prevent or treat attacks, ease your symptoms, or help you manage the stress that can come with the condition.

Drugs that may slow your MS or help nerve damage include:

  • Alemtuzumab (Lemtrada) 
  • Bafiertam (monomethyl fumarate)
  • Beta interferon (Avonex, Betaseron, and Rebif)
  • Cladribrine (Mavenclad)
  • Dalfampridine (Ampyra)
  • Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)
  • Diroximel fumarate (Vumerity)
  • Gilenya (Fingolimod)
  • Glatiramer (Copaxone)
  • Mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
  • Natalizumab (Tysabri)
  • Ocrelizumab (Ocrevus)
  • Ofatumumab (Kesimpta)
  • Ozanimod (Zeposia)
  • Ponesimod (Ponvory)
  • Siponimod (Mayzent)
  • Teriflunomide (Aubagio)

Your doctor may give you steroids to make your MS attacks shorter and less severe. You can also try other drugs, like muscle relaxants, tranquilizers, or botulinum toxin (Botox), to ease muscle spasms and treat some of the other symptoms.

A physical therapist can teach you exercises that will keep up your strength and balance and help you manage fatigue and pain. An occupational therapist can teach you new ways to do certain tasks to make it easier to work and take care of yourself. If you have trouble getting around, a cane, walker, or braces can help you walk more easily.

Along with treatment, you can do other things to ease your MS symptoms. Get regular exercise and avoid too much heat to boost your energy. Ask your doctor about trying yoga to ease fatigue or stress. Take care of your emotional health, too. It’s OK to ask family, friends, or a counselor for help with any stress or anxiety you may feel. Support groups are also great places to connect with other people living with MS.

Complications of MS

If you have MS, you may deal with any of these complications: 

  • Epilepsy
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Paralysis (usually in the legs)
  • Mental changes like forgetfulness or mood swings
  • Interruptions in or reduction of mobility
  • Vertigo
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Tremors
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Constipation

Living With MS

You can do a few things that may ease symptoms:

Prioritize sleep. Make sure you’re getting quality sleep and enough of it. (Keep consistent sleep and wake times to maintain good sleep hygiene.) If you have obstructive sleep apnea or another sleep disorder, talk to your doctor about treating it.

Eat well. Nutrition plays a role in health, so a balanced diet can help you feel your best. Eat whole grains instead of refined grains. Avoid or limit processed foods and added sugar. Eat plenty of fruits and veggies.

Exercise regularly. Getting active regularly may enhance your strength, balance, and coordination.

Keep cool. Symptoms can get worse if your body temperature is higher. Avoid the heat, or wear clothing that helps you stay cool.

Destress. Stress can trigger symptoms, so find a way to relieve stress that works for you. Yoga, meditation, or massage may help.

Avoid smoking. This is linked to a wide range of diseases and conditions. Smoking can also make MS symptoms get worse more quickly.  

Get care regularly. See your doctor or health care professional regularly to keep tabs on symptoms. Ask for information on new and upcoming treatments.

Customize your environment. Make whatever modifications needed in your living spaces to accommodate your MS. That may mean decluttering, adding grab bars, and the like.

Anticipate possible changes. MS may change how much you can work (and it can stop you from being able to work). As a result, you may earn less (or not be able to earn an income at all). In one study, people with MS who had lower socioeconomic status became disabled faster. Participants were more likely to experience secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) -- that means their neurologic function got worse -- more quickly, too.

Seek support. Connecting with others who have MS may give you the mental and emotional support needed to live well.

MS Prognosis

Because there’s no cure for MS, your doctor will focus on treating your symptoms. Over the past 20 years, new treatments have greatly improved the quality of life for those with the disease. These treatments not only help with symptoms, they can also slow the progression of MS.

About half of those with MS will still be able to walk on their own 15 years after diagnosis. The rest will need a wheelchair or other aids. The average time to serious disability like confinement to bed is 33 years.

Most people with MS have close to a normal life expectancy. Though in some serious cases, people with MS can die early from pneumonia or other infections related to their disease, most people die from other ailments. Overall, the life expectancy of someone with MS is only about 5% less than a normal healthy adult.

In general, symptoms and disabilities don’t worsen significantly from those you have in the first 5 years after diagnosis. Still, it’s hard to know what path the disease will take in any particular case.

Careful and consistent monitoring and treatment of MS with your medical team is the best way to keep your symptoms at bay and slow the progression of the disease.

Next Article

Multiple Sclerosis Guide

  1. Overview & Risk Factors
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis & Tests
  4. Related Conditions
  5. Treatment & Care
  6. Complications
  7. Living With & Management
  8. Support & Resources

What will happen to Russian users of Windows and Office

Relations between Russia and Microsoft have not yet been broken, according to some participants in the Russian software market. Experts believe that the corporation rather took a break until the geopolitical situation improves. Indirectly, this is also indicated by the fact that Microsoft and its partners in the Russian Federation refuse to comment on the loud statement of the head office. However, experts do not exclude that in the absence of changes for the better, Microsoft programs and operating systems will begin to lose functionality over time.

Silence is gold

On March 4, the American IT giant Microsoft announced the suspension of the sale of goods and services in Russia. The company's message turned out to be stingy with details, and consequently left Russian users with many questions. For example, from the text of Microsoft Vice President Brad Smith, it is quite clear that it will not be possible to purchase new copies of software and Windows licenses in the Russian Federation for some time. At the same time, the corporation's statement does not provide further instructions for owners of already paid subscriptions, for example, to Microsoft Office and purchased copies of Windows.

Gazeta.Ru also failed to get an explanation of the situation from the Russian representative office of Microsoft and Softline, the largest distributor of the American company's products in the Russian Federation. Both companies declined to comment on the situation. At the same time, licenses of various versions of Windows and other Microsoft products are still sold on the Softline website.

Anton Ten, head of corporate sales at CommuniGate Systems, calls Microsoft's announcement "very careful" and believes that in this situation, even the corporation itself does not quite understand what it should do with Russian users and licenses now. A similar opinion is shared by Dmitry Zavalishin, CEO of the DZ Systems group of companies. According to him, the experience of 2014, when events unfolded in Crimea, shows that companies are more likely to declare a break with the Russian market than actually leave here.

“Microsoft has been working with Russia for a long time. The loss of our market will be sensitive for the company not even because of the lost money, but due to the fact that the development of alternative solutions will inevitably spread from Russia to other countries, accelerating the replacement of Windows in the world. The loss of the image of a reliable partner will not contribute to the company's business," he said.

Some experts even believe that Microsoft's Russian clients will get off with little bloodshed. For example, Pavel Bazlov, head of the service for providing services for Russian customers at ICL Services, is sure that the restrictions of the IT giant will only apply to new sales. Service to current customers, he believes, is likely to continue.

Hope for the best, and prepare for the worst

Although experts are not inclined to interpret Microsoft's decision as a desire to completely leave the Russian market, they do not completely exclude the latter scenario. For example, Pavel Eiges, CEO of the Open Mobile Platform, believes that in the current situation there is a possibility of a complete ban on the use of Microsoft software, both by companies and individuals.

“I don't rule out such a scenario. We saw examples of license revocations in 2014,” Eiges said.

Anton Ten from CommuniGate Systems also believes that Russian users should prepare for the most unpleasant outcome of events. Perhaps, he believes, Russian users will remain without licenses and without technical support from Microsoft.

“Users of cloud solutions are most at risk, as well as users with term licenses, that is, limited in time. If the decision to suspend deliveries and technical support lasts for a long time, then urgent licenses will become illegitimate, and in some cases will stop working, ”he explained.

Pavel Bazlov from ICL Services says that in the event of Microsoft's complete withdrawal from Russia, new companies will suffer the most, since they will basically not be able to buy the products of an American company, which will complicate the launch of business processes.

“Next in line are companies that are ending their license agreements in the near future, they will depend on the position of MS on the renewal of the license agreement. The most protected are those companies that have entered into long-term license agreements, or have concluded such agreements recently, but even they may have problems when they need to purchase additional products from Microsoft, ”he added.

Back-up plan

Whatever the outcome, experts believe that there will be no irreparable consequences. At least because at the moment many software products have been developed in Russia that can replace solutions from Microsoft. Moreover, the current situation could become a high point for Russian developers.

“Now Microsoft can be completely replaced with a different set of Russian services. For Russian manufacturers, the best time to demonstrate their developments.

Our market includes both operating systems from manufacturers Astra Linux, BaseALT, RED SOFT, and office applications from My Office, P7, CommuniGate Systems, Vinteo, TrueConf and many others,” said Anton Ten.

If Russian developers successfully enter the big stage, he believes, Microsoft will hardly be able to regain a large share in the Russian market.

Dmitry Zavalishin from DZ Systems is of the same opinion. He said that Russia has long been replacing Windows with Russian alternatives. The decision of the corporation to suspend sales will only speed up this process and rebalance the cash flow towards domestic companies, for example, OS developers based on the Linux kernel.

"On the other hand, this process won't be very fast, as Windows licenses are purchased for a long time and won't disappear overnight," he said.

Ilya Sivtsev, General Director of Astra Group of Companies (the developer of the domestic Astra Linux operating system - Gazeta.Ru), also notes that Russia has long been aware of the threat of sanctions risks from Microsoft, so the company was ready for the unfolding scenario.

“We are confident that this move by Microsoft will stimulate other segments, such as state corporations, industry, SMB, and others, to active import substitution. We are ready to approach the issue of developing joint migration projects as quickly and professionally as possible,” Sivtsev said.

The company also noted that they have already formed an ecosystem of solutions and infrastructure to support customers at all stages of implementation and transition from Windows to Astra Linux.

Bill Gates Predictions | Computer World

Microsoft Chairman Looks For Big Innovation

The coming decade will bring more software and computing innovations than the past. Including, according to the chairman of the board of directors of Microsoft Bill Gates, these innovations will affect how people watch TV, how they use phones and enter information into computers.

Changes in the field of software and computing systems in the next ten years, according to Gates, will be "very important" and will affect all aspects of life. This was stated in his speech at an event hosted by the Northern Virginia Technology Council. Gates believes that computers and software will change the way people take pictures or buy music, and other industries will be equally affected in the coming years.

"There are many activities that have not yet been touched by the digital approach," - said the founder of Microsoft

In particular, he made the following predictions.

- Television will merge with the Internet, thanks to which users will be able to receive personalized news and advertising. People will be watching most of their home video on TV, and by the way, computers and TVs will be increasingly connected to each other. Television, according to Gates, will be completely different.

- Televisions will increasingly support video, e-mail and other digital media. Speech recognition will allow, for example, to find out the addresses of the nearest restaurants by phone.

- More and more software will be provided as a service over the Internet rather than installed on individual computers.

- Computer users will have more options for entering information using other means than the mouse and keyboard. Speech and handwriting recognition software will continue to grow in popularity. Computers will leave the desktop, and speech recognition and motion-sensing cameras will allow users to control screens built into desktops or wallboards.

- More and more schools will abandon textbooks in favor of tablet PCs. New types of textbooks will contain more videos and other means of conveying information.

- Companies and government agencies will implement 3D computing systems, offering users new ways to communicate in virtual worlds. Students will increasingly use software to simulate experiments.

"Broadly speaking, we can say that information professionals ... do not yet have all the opportunities for collaboration that they need," Gates said. "I think the opportunities are now more tangible than ever."

Gates noted that he is very optimistic about the future of the technology industry, even despite the difficult situation in which the US economy finds itself. "I don't think it will stop the rapid movement forward," he said.

Gates also reiterated his concerns about the number of H-1B visas and other immigrant work visas eligible to represent US companies. A few days ago, he spoke on this issue before the US Congress.

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